Wind stories for the future

Pendidikan Sains189 Dilihat

Definition of wind

Wind has the understanding as a movement of air masses due to the difference in air pressure between 2 points/regions. The greater the difference in air pressure, the higher the wind speed will be.

In the world of meteorology wind can be very useful as a season forecast. This is related to the movement of wet air masses that contain water vapor that moves carried by the wind. So that the wind can be regarded as an indicator of the weather that will occur in an area.

Wind factor

There are 4 stages in the factors that influence the occurrence of wind, including:

1. Barometric Gradient

A number that represents the difference in air pressure between 2 isobars that are 111 km apart. the greater the barometric gradient, the faster the wind blows.

2. Place Location

Wind speeds near the equator are faster than those far from the equator.

3. Height of Place

The higher the place, the stronger the wind that blows, this is due to the influence of the frictional force that inhibits the air velocity. On the earth’s surface, mountains, trees, and other uneven topography exert great frictional forces. The higher a place is, the less this frictional force is.

4. Time

During the day the wind moves faster than at night. One of the factors that cause wind is the pressure gradient that arises due to differences in air temperature. Strong or weak wind gusts are determined by the magnitude of the slope of the air pressure or in other words the speed of the wind is proportional to the slope of the air pressure.

In addition to the gradient of pressure, wind motion is determined by other factors such as the influence of the earth’s rotation and frictional forces. The greater the difference in air pressure, the greater the speed of the wind blowing.

Some Characteristics of Wind

Among the properties of the wind are as follows:

1. Wind can accelerate the cooling of hot objects

2. The wind exerts pressure on the surface that opposes the area of ​​the wind

3. Wind speed varies greatly from place to place, and from time to time

Energy of Wind

Wind measurement

Wind at the surface is measured using an anemometer. The measuring instrument is installed at a height of 10 meters from the Earth’s surface. Anemometers measure speed in m/s or knots. In addition, the anemometer also provides information from the direction of the wind. Wind direction is expressed in degrees. The wind from the north is represented by 360 degrees, from the east by 90 degrees, from the south by 180 degrees and from the west by 270 degrees. While the wind is very weak and the direction cannot be ascertained, it is marked with 0 degrees. Wind energy is equivalent to its speed. The level of wind strength is determined based on the Beaufort scale, while the wind speed is formulated based on the Beaufort scale by George Simpson.

Anemometers and wind measurement standards

Anemometer is a tool to measure wind speed. This wind speed measuring device is a device used to measure wind speed and also to measure direction, an anemometer is one of the instruments often used by weather agencies such as the Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG). The word anemometer comes from the Greek anemos which means wind, wind is air that moves in all directions, wind moves from one place to another.

anemometer Classic

This anemometer was first introduced by Leon Battista Alberti from Italy in 1450. The anemometer must be placed in an open area. When blown by the wind, the vane or bowl contained in the anemometer will move in the direction of the wind. The greater the wind speed blowing the bowls, the faster the rotation speed of the bowls. From the number of revolutions in one second, the wind speed can be known. Inside the anemometer there is a counter that will calculate the wind speed.

Anemometer Functions

In addition to discussing the meaning of anemometer, we will also discuss the main functions of an anemometer, namely:

forecast the weather

estimating sea wave height

estimate the speed and direction of the current

measure wind speed.

In general, anemometers are divided into two types, namely, anemometers that measure wind pressure (pressure anemometers) and anemometers that measure wind speed (velocity anomometers). Among these two types, the velocity anemometer is the most widely used.

Digital anemometer

Wind speed unit

Wind speed is a unit that measures the speed of air flow from high pressure to low pressure and is measured using an anemometer or can be classified using the Beaufort scale based on observations of the specific effect of a particular wind speed.

Knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile (1,852 km) per hour, approximately 1,151 miles per hour. The abbreviation used for this unit of speed, according to the maritime United States, Canada, as well as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is kn.

Types of Wind

There are many types of wind, both distinguished based on the source and the level of wind speed. Here are some types of wind:

1. Mountain Wind and Valley Wind

The first types of wind are mountain winds and valley winds. Differences in warming temperatures also occur in mountainous areas with valley areas. At sunrise is the time when the valley breeze occurs. The area that gets the heat energy first is the top of the mountain and the process takes place throughout the day.

Valleys get less heat energy than mountain slopes. So there is a temperature difference between the valley and the slopes of the mountain. Cold air from the valley replaces hot air on the rising slopes of the mountain, resulting in a flow of air from the valley to the mountain which is called valley wind.

Meanwhile, in the afternoon the cool mountain peaks will flow air into the valleys and the valleys will release heat energy. This flow of air is called mountain wind.

2. Hurricane or Whirlwind

The second types of winds are hurricanes or whirlwinds. Hurricanes or whirlwinds are also known as hurricanes, which are strong winds that come suddenly, have a spiral-like center of motion until they touch the earth’s surface and disappear in a short time (3-5 minutes).

With average wind speeds ranging from 30-40 knots. This wind comes from Cumulonimbus (CB) clouds, which are dark gray and towering clumpy clouds.

3. Fohn Angin wind

The third type of wind is the Fohn wind. The Fohn wind is a hot, dry wind that comes down from the slopes of the mountains. This wind occurs because the humidity of the air is getting dynamically heated. So that hot and dry air flows to the land.

In addition, types of wind other than local winds are winds that blow over a wider area such as monsoons or monsoons. There are two types of monsoon winds that occur in Indonesia, namely the west monsoon and the east monsoon. The monsoon winds are caused by differences in air pressure on the continents that surround Indonesia, namely the Autralia continent with dry air and the Asian continent with relatively humid air.

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4. Fixed Wind

All kinds of winds are constant winds. The wind is still a wind with a constant blowing direction throughout the year. Fixed winds are divided into two types, namely trade winds and anti-trade winds. Here’s the explanation:

a. trade winds; is the wind that blows from the subtropics to the equator.

b. Anti-trade winds are winds that blow from the equator to the subtropics.

5. Sea breeze and land breeze

The sixth types of winds are sea breezes and land breezes. Land breezes are winds that blow from land to sea, while sea breezes are winds that blow from sea to land. There are differences in the nature of the ocean and land resulting in land breezes and sea breezes. The ocean absorbs and releases heat energy longer than the land.

6. Monsoon (Muson)

The other types of wind are monsoons. Monsoons are winds that blow periodically (at least 3 months) and between one period and another have the opposite pattern and change direction every half year. Monsoon winds are divided into two types, namely:

a. The west monsoon is a wind that blows from Asia to Australia and brings rainfall so that the rainy season in Indonesia occurs, this wind blows in October-April.

In that month, the southern hemisphere is directly under the sun, which causes the temperature in the southern hemisphere to be higher than the temperature in the northern hemisphere, so that the wind blows to the southern hemisphere.

b. The east monsoon is the wind that blows from Australia to Asia and does not bring rainfall so that in Indonesia there is a dry season, this wind blows in April-October. At that time, the northern hemisphere is located directly under the sun. Causing the Australian continent to experience winter so high pressure. While the Asian continent is hotter, so the pressure is low.

Wind and Alternative Energy

Wind Power Generator

Alternative Energy is a renewable energy source, such as solar heat, wind, water, ocean waves, and so on. This energy source has a very important role in human life. One of the alternative energies available and the cheapest today is wind energy.

Wind energy is energy produced by the force of the wind blowing on the earth’s surface. Wind energy is a renewable energy source because the wind will continue to blow as long as the sun shines.

Wind energy can be converted into mechanical energy to generate work. The use of wind energy has been started since the 7th century BC by the Persians, namely by making the world’s first windmill. These windmills are used to grind rice, pump water, chop wood, and produce other forms of mechanical energy. Currently wind turbines can convert wind energy into electrical energy. Power generation that uses wind power is mentioned as a type of energy generation, which is growing rapidly in the world. In fact, the total capacity of wind power generation worldwide is around 17.5 GW. It’s amazing isn’t it??

V-Air Wind Technologies

Wind energy does not cause pollution and includes renewable energy sources, so many countries on earth such as Germany, Denmark, India, China, and the United States build wind turbines as an additional source of electricity.

That was a piece of news from the wind. Hopefully it will inspire and motivate synergies and be able to use wind as an alternative energy in the future.

Thank you. Keep smiling (人 •͈ᴗ•͈)